While recalulcating the hominin ancestry for Geno 2.0 Next Generation participants we decided to focus on Neanderthal rather than Denisovan since we understand Neanderthal genetics much better. However, The Genographic Project is an evolving scientific endeavour, and we may reintroduce the Denisovan calculation in the future. Stay tuned for updates.
For Geno 1 and Geno 2.0 perticipants the raw analytical output from your DNA sample is available to you as a CSV file. Go to My Profile, select the My Results tab and scroll down to Expert Options.
Because this data is sensitive, you must first agree to the terms and then you will have the option to download the file. A download link will automatically appear under the My Test Results section.
When you choose to contribute to science, your genetic information, including the file with the analysis results of your sample and any demographic information you provide when completing your Profile, is added to the research database and made accessible to researchers through an application process. We never provide identifying information to any researcher accessing the Genographic database.
Please call a customer service representative for assistance at:
Telephone Number: +1 713 868 1807 or email@example.com
Hours of Operation: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. U.S. central time, Monday through Friday
We are grateful for the enthusiastic response to our new Geno 2.0 Next Generation kit and are glad you have joined the journey. Due to the high number of participants, some results may take up to 10 weeks to process from the time they are received at our lab. Thank you for your patience—our sincere apologies for any delay you may experience.
The Genographic Project is a research project of the National Geographic Society, which encompasses work carried out by our scientific team to elucidate new patterns of human migration, as well as public testing through the participation kits. Our testing focuses on deep ancestry from an anthropological perspective. It is not primarily a genealogy testing service, such as that offered by Ancestry.com, although you do have the option of seeing how you are related to other participants in the Our Story section. 23andMe is primarily a medically focused testing company, examining markers that are associated with disease risk. While they do offer some insights into ancestry, that is not their primary focus. The genetic technology we use for our testing is a custom-designed genotyping chip optimized for the study of ancestry, with far more Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers than are available with any other test. Our autosomal markers are similarly optimized for inferring ancestry, rather than medical testing, and we feel that it is the best technology available for this purpose.
Your haplogroup hasn’t changed—it has just become more precise as we’ve added new markers to the tree. When there were only a dozen or so sub-branches in the haplogroup R branch of the tree, for instance, using designations such as R1b1a made more sense. Now that there are hundreds of sub-branches in R alone, with more being added regularly as we test more people with the GenoChip, it’s much easier to designate people as being a member of a broad branch, such as R, and then to designate their terminal marker on the current tree.
The Genographic Project is an ambitious attempt to help answer fundamental questions about where we came from and how we came to populate the earth. Building on the science from the two phases of the Genographic Project, Geno 2.0 Next Generation uses sophisticated, cutting-edge technology to build a more complete picture of our collective history. The Genographic team has created a revolutionary genotyping chip for studying deep ancestry to lead us further on this journey. The Geno 2.0 Next Generation 2.0 kit examines a unique collection of nearly 750,000 DNA identifiers, called “markers,” that offer rich ancestry-relevant information.
With simple and painless cheek swabs you can sample your own DNA and submit it to our laboratory where we will run one participant test per kit. We will test your mitochondrial DNA, which is passed down each generation from mother to child and reveals your direct maternal deep ancestry, and—if you are male—your Y chromosome, which is passed down from father to son and reveals your direct paternal deep ancestry. These male and female lineages will be scanned for thousands of genetic markers, providing the richest phylogenetic resolution. The new test also scans more than 700,000 markers from across your entire genome that were inherited from both your mother and father, revealing insights into those ancestors who are not on a strictly maternal or paternal line. Included among these markers is a set that will also reveal if you are carrying DNA that came from our hominin cousins, the Neanderthals (You can see a selection of sample results on the Buy the Kit page.)
Each kit contains supplies for testing one person.
Your results will place you on a particular branch of the human family tree dating as far back as 200,000 years ago, and will trace the migratory paths of your ancestors up to the more recent past, in some cases as recently as the past 1,000 years. Some anthropological stories are more detailed than others, depending upon the lineage you belong to. For example, if you are of recent African descent, your results will show the initial movements of your ancestors on the African continent but may not reflect some of the migrations that have occurred within the past several hundred years. Your individual results may confirm your expectations of what you believe your deep ancestry to be, or you may be surprised to learn a new story about your genetic background.
You will also receive a visual percentage breakdown of your genomic ancestry by regional genetic affiliation. These affiliations are compiled by examining the genetic markers across your entire genome beyond mtDNA and the Y chromosome—and comparing your results with our growing database to reveal the regional affiliations of your ancestry. Your regional genetic affiliations reflect the ancient migratory paths of your ancestors and how they mixed with groups around the world. Included in the analysis are Neanderthal markers, revealing if our hominin cousins left a trace in your DNA.
Ultimately, it is up to you, but participants will discover the migration paths their ancient ancestors followed thousands of years ago and will learn the details of their ancestral roots—their branch on the family tree. It is an opportunity to participate in a real-time scientific research effort and to connect with other participants to see how we are all related. This next generation of the Genographic Project DNA swab kit offers unique scientific information gained from the first phases of the Genographic Project to give participants an in-depth look into their ancestry. Participants can also play an active role in the historic quest to map this genetic journey. You will have the opportunity to register to join the Genographic online community and to connect with other participants, share experiences, and find common ancestry—helping us fill in the gaps between your genetic results and what you know about your more recent genealogy. And as a not-for-profit initiative, the Genographic Project will direct a portion of the proceeds from kit sales to help further National Geographic scientific and conservation grants.
Once you return your genetic samples, they will be processed at Family Tree DNA, the Genographic Project’s testing partner and a leading genetic genealogy company.
From the time you return your samples to us, it will take approximately ten weeks to test your DNA, analyze the specimens, and upload the results to the Genographic website. (Please note that in some cases, inconclusive data may occasionally require additional testing and might delay posting of results by two to three additional weeks.)
Approximately ten days after you send in your samples, you can begin tracking where your samples are in the testing process by visiting the Genographic website and selecting Check Results. After you log in with your Genographic Project ID (sometimes referred to as a GPID), you will be able to see what stage of testing your samples are in, following along step by step as your samples are being tested and analyzed. Once your results are ready, you will be able to view them on the website.
During login, you will also have the option to register your GPID and create an account. If you register, you will receive email updates letting you know when your samples enter each testing phase. Registering will also allow us to retrieve your Genographic Project ID if you ever lose it. Please read more about registration in this FAQ.
You can download the Geno 2.0 Next Generation Quick Start Guide & Consent Form from the Consent Form page of this website.
If you find a piece of the kit is missing or damaged, email your customer information and order details—including your order number—to firstname.lastname@example.org. A Genographic Project coordinator will send you the missing piece.
The Genographic kit is designed to last more than a year, but we recommend that you mail in your kit within a few months of purchasing it to ensure that the optimal amount of DNA is preserved and ready to be analyzed. The Geno 2.0 Next Generation kit does not expire but must be sent back within 12 months of purchasing it. National Geographic reserves the right to not conduct tests of kits sent back to us more than 12 months after purchase, and no refunds will be given. Participants should check that there is ample fluid in the two vials included in the kit. If there is no fluid, the participant should contact customer service at Genographic@ngs.org to receive a replacement.
No, the testing materials from the Genographic Project kit are not considered biohazards.
If you are completing a postal form where you must indicate the contents of the package, we recommend you write “cotton swabs.”
The Genographic kit includes a pre-addressed, but not pre-paid, envelope to return your samples. Postage is required for a 1-ounce, first-class mail package. The envelope included in the kit requires at least five stamps if mailing within the U.S.
Yes, but only with a parent’s or guardian’s consent. Children under the age of 18 are not permitted to purchase a Genographic Project Participation and DNA Ancestry Kit themselves, but with the consent of a child’s parent or guardian, the child may have his or her DNA sample analyzed to create a genetic migratory profile. Any person purchasing a kit and supplying it to a child under the age of 18 must obtain consent from the child’s parent or guardian in accordance with applicable law prior to permitting the child to send in the sample for DNA analysis.
While at one time we did offer the Genographic kit in different languages (such as German, French and Spanish), we determined that the level of demand was not high enough to justify continued production. We do encourage international orders and continue to ship the English language kits outside of the US.
No. We will not be able to determine if you are carrying any genetic markers associated with a disease because we are only testing your DNA to look at markers associated with genetic ancestry.
No. The Genographic Project will not conduct any health-related tests on the DNA samples provided by public participants. The DNA analysis conducted by National Geographic is intended to determine what migratory routes your deep ancestors followed, on which branch of the human family tree you belong, and what your regional genetic affiliations are. The markers analyzed to generate these results do not have any current health-related association.
Our specific purpose is to test for genetic ancestry and NOT for paternity, medical, or criminal purposes. While information about ancestry can be used to make inferences about paternity in some cases, it should not be used to establish paternity. The Genographic Project’s primary test attempts to determine what migratory routes your deep ancestors followed and to which branch of the phylogenetic tree you belong, and regional genetic affiliation, and many people around the world will have the same deep ancestry.
No, participants will only check the consent form to note their gender and give consent for DNA testing. The Geno 2.0 Next Generation test will run a comprehensive analysis to identify thousands of genetic markers on your mitochondrial DNA, which is passed down each generation from mother to child, to reveal your direct maternal deep ancestry, and more than 15,000 markers on the Y chromosome (male participants only since women do not carry a Y chromosome), which is passed down from father to son, to reveal your direct paternal deep ancestry. In addition, for all participants, we will analyze a collection of more than 700,000 other markers from across your entire genome to reveal the regional affiliations of your ancestry passed on from both of your parents, offering insights into your ancestors who are not on a direct maternal or paternal line.
The entire family can learn about their ancestry if one family member takes the test. However, if a parent-child pair take the test there is higher utility in that it will help to reveal which side of your family the regional components came from. If a father and daughter pair take the test then you will have results for maternal mtDNA, paternal Y-chromosome, and paternal mtDNA, as well as half of your regional percentages, allowing you to infer which side of the family they came from. This is the most ideal testing situation to find out the most complete picture of your family’s ancestry.
If you are female, your paternal ancestry is reflected in the half of your autosomes or regional percentages that you received from your father. Since you don’t have a Y-chromosome, you’ll need to ask a male first-degree relative (such as your brother or your father) to test as well to learn about your paternal ancestry.
The Genographic Project uses the same genotyping chip for everyone regardless of gender.
Siblings with the same biological parents will have very similar but not identical results because 50% of a person’s genetic material is passed on from the mother and 50% is passed on from the father, but what exactly a child inherits from their parents varies with every conception. So, the inherited combination of genetic material will differ slightly between nonidentical siblings.
The Genographic Project has developed a customized DNA Analysis Repository (DAR), a central database solution that manages electronic DNA data for the project. Housed on the servers of the National Geographic Society in Washington, D.C., the DAR leverages IBM information management software to manage DNA data collected from Genographic Project investigators worldwide.
In collaboration with National Geographic, IBM developed a field-collection solution, which comprises a remote system used by Genographic Project scientists worldwide to record phenotypic data regarding the physical DNA samples gathered in the field. The information technology infrastructure provides secure transmission, storage, and management of hundreds of thousands of DNA records and effective communication with the general public through the Web infrastructure.
Public participant cheek-swab samples are processed by National Geographic’s partner lab in Houston, Texas. Indigenous and traditional participants’ samples that were collected or are being analyzed by scientists associated with the Genographic Project’s university research centers are processed in-country in one of the project’s research centers or by associate researchers.
As a partner in the project, Family Tree DNA does have access to some of the DNA and data to assist in the analytical research. However, the DNA belongs to participants, and Family Tree DNA has signed a contract with National Geographic legally committing that it will not use the DNA for any other purposes. Other than a service provider carefully selected by National Geographic, such as Family Tree DNA, no other private genetic testing company would have access to any of the DNA and nonpublic data. After joining the Genographic Project, you can chose to transfer your results to our laboratory partners at Family Tree DNA who can help you pursue a genetic genealogical study.
National Geographic does not link any of your personally identifiable information to the Geno 2.0 Next Generation test kit or the DNA samples you send to us without your consent. Because National Geographic does not retain a participant’s randomly generated GPID unless a participant registers an online Genographic profile, National Geographic cannot associate a participant’s results with contact information the participant may have provided when ordering, such as a name or shipping address, if a participant has not registered online. Your results are confidential to you and anonymous to National Geographic.
Once we have completed the analysis of the DNA sample you provide when you mail in your kit, you will be able to access your personal results revealing comprehensive ancestry information and regional ancestral affiliations by anonymously logging onto a secure website using the Genographic Project Participant ID provided to you in your kit.
When you log onto the website to access your results, you will be given the opportunity to participate in a major global effort to collect population genetic data from hundreds of thousands of individuals from around the world. If you agree to contribute your results to science, the genetic data from your test and the answers you provide in an online profile—including some personal information such as your zip code—will be included in our database of global genetic information for research purposes and linked to your Genographic Project ID. Participation in the global database is your choice and is not necessary in order to access your individual test results.
During the online log-in process, we also will offer you an opportunity to register your Genographic Participant ID. If you choose to register, your personally identifiable information will be linked to your Genographic Project ID, and your genetic information in our database will no longer be anonymous to National Geographic. By registering, you are allowing National Geographic to link the DNA samples you sent to us and the genetic tests we have performed to any personally identifiable information that you choose to provide to us. Future use and disclosure of this information will be subject to the Genographic Project’s policy and any future permission that you give us. In addition, National Geographic may disclose participant information when doing so is required by law.
Registration is not required for you to access your results. It is your option to more actively participate in enhanced activities offered in Geno 2.0 Next Generation. It will allow us to recover your Genographic Project ID if you ever lose it, send you email alerts about the status of your results, and communicate to you any important new information.
If a participant chooses to request further genetic testing from National Geographic’s partner, Family Tree DNA, for purposes other than the Genographic Project, the participant will use his or her Genographic Project ID to permit Family Tree DNA to access the samples of cheek cells they provided. Family Tree DNA has committed to National Geographic that it will protect the confidentiality of every Genographic Project ID and that it will safeguard and use the Genographic Project ID only for purposes of further testing that the participant has requested or as otherwise may be required by law.
Yes. We make every effort to protect your information and ensure that it is used only in keeping with your consent. However, you can elect to remove all or part of your personal information from research by sending an email to our customer service at email@example.com.
The changes you request will apply to all research going forward. Of course, we cannot modify the past, so previous research and access given to researchers cannot be undone.
If you request:
“Remove my results from the science”, we will unflag your account in our database, which will prevent researchers from accessing your genetic data. The About Me, Maternal and Paternal sections in your Profile will be inactive, but any information you had entered along with your genetic data will remain stored in the database. Please note that deleting the information you entered in your Profile does not remove your results from our database—you must make a written request to be removed.
“Unregister my account”, your GPID(s) will be reset, removing any connection between your results and personal information including your Profile information and your email address. Your genetic data will remain stored in our database and will be accessible to researchers unless you separately request to “Remove my results from the science.”
“Remove me from email communications”, we will unsubscribe you from all Genographic Project emails.
“Completely remove all my data”, your genetic data, profile information and account will be completely deleted from our system. Please note that this action is irreversible and in the event that you want to reaccess your results, you will need to purchase a new kit and complete another DNA analysis.
For any other request, including having your sample destroyed, you can contact a customer service representative at:
Telephone number: +1-713-868-1807
Hours of Operation: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. U.S. central time, Monday through Friday
We do not know of any risk to you from taking the cheek-scraper sample or having your DNA sample analyzed to determine your genetic ancestry.
If you are interested in contributing your results to Genographic Project research, please be sure to select this option when you log on to the website to access your results. If you agree to contribute your results, the genetic data from your test and the answers you provide in an online profile—including some personal information such as your zip code—will be included in our database of global genetic information for research purposes and linked to your Genographic Project ID. Participation in the global database is your choice and is not necessary in order to access your individual test results.
If you do choose to opt in and contribute your results, your results will be entered into the Genographic Project database and may be used in our real-time research project. By contributing your results you will help us answer important questions relating to how our ancestors came to populate the world.
If you do not choose to contribute your results to Genographic Project research, your results will in no way be used in our efforts to fill in the gaps of human migration. Your results will remain accessible only to you with your Genographic Project ID.