Glossary Terms: E - H

Terms

  1. FOXP2

  2. Gene

  3. Genetic Marker

  4. GenoChip

  5. Genome

  6. Haplogroup

  7. Haplotype

  8. Heredity

Definitions

  1. FOXP2

    The first gene to be linked to language production, and one of the keys to the development of brain regions associated with speech. The development of language may be tied to a genetic mutation inFOXP2 that is shared by humans and our cousins, the Neanderthals, implying that it could have occurred more than 500,000 years ago before the ancestors of the Neanderthals migrated out of Africa.

  2. Gene

    Genes are sections of DNA that function as blueprints for your traits—things that make you who you are. You inherit half of your genes from your father and half from your mother.

  3. Genetic Marker

    Genetic markers are mutations- or typos- in the genetic code passed from parent to child. Once identified, scientists can use these markers to build a family tree. If you and someone else have the same genetic marker, you share an ancestor who was the first to have that mutation, and eventually passed it on to you.

  4. GenoChip

    A custom-designed genotyping array composed of nearly 150,000 microscopic beads, each of which tests for a different genetic marker on the autosomes, Y-chromosome, and mtDNA

  5. Genome

    Your genome is your complete and unique DNA blueprint.

  6. Haplogroup

    Your haplogroup is your branch on the human family tree. All people alive today belong to distinct haplogroups based on the sequence of genetic markers carried in their cells. People belonging to the same haplogroup can trace their descent to a common ancestor and even a specific place where that ancestor may have lived.

  7. Haplotype

    A person’s individual footprint of all tested genetic markers. Even the difference of a single genetic marker delineates a distinct haplotype.

  8. Heredity

    The total sum of genetic information that humans pass on from generation to generation