Reference Populations – Geno 2.0 Next Generation

Introduction:

Modern-day indigenous populations around the world carry particular blends of 18 regional affiliations. We compared your DNA results to each of 60 geographic and ethnic populations and calculated which two of these populations were most similar to you in terms of the genetic markers you carry.

African-American (Southwestern US)

The mixture of regions reflected here is due to the centuries-long forced slavery from Africa to the Americas during the slave-trading era (Western and Central Africa, Southern Africa, and Eastern Africa). There is also a European contribution to the population (comprising the smaller Great Britain/Ireland and Southern Europe components).


Altaian (Siberian)

This population is based on samples collected from a native Siberian population living in the Altai region, a mountainous area located in south-central Siberia on the borders of present-day Mongolia, China, Kazakhstan, and Russia. In addition to the Central Asia, Finland, Siberia, and Eastern Asia components typical of Siberian and Mongolian populations, there is also a small Asia Minor and Eastern European contribution, which shows the connection to steppe nomads and migrations from the west that spread agriculture over the past 10,000 years.


Amerindian (Mexico)

This population is based on samples collected from regions in central Mexico. These are the descendants of the original settlers of the Americas over 15,000 years ago, accounting for the large Native American percentage. The Finland and Siberia component is reflective of the origins of the Native Americans in northeastern Asia over 20,000 years ago, while the European components reflect the influence of Spanish colonization on Mesoamerica.


Bermudian

This population is based on samples collected from mixed populations living in Bermuda. The percentages shown here reflect Bermuda’s vast racial diversity, including Africans brought during the slave-trading era (West and central Africa, as well as Southern Africa) and European and Asian colonists and workers (Great Britain and Ireland, Western and Central Europe, and Southern Asia). In addition, some Native Americans were sent as slaves to Bermuda in the 17th century, accounting for the small Native American ancestry. Bermuda had no indigenous inhabitants when Europeans first arrived in the 16th century.


Bougainville-Nasioi (Oceania)

This population is based on groups from the Melanesian island of Bougainville, to the east of Papua New Guinea (PNG) in the Solomon Islands. In addition to the predominant Southeast Asia and Oceania component that defines this and other populations in the region, the smaller Southern and Eastern Asia components are thought to have been introduced over the past several millennia by the seafarers who hailed from continental Asia. These seafarers were the ancestors of the Polynesians, who migrated through PNG and the Solomon Islands before heading out into the open waters of the Pacific.


British (United Kingdom)

This reference population is based on people living in England, in the United Kingdom. The dominant Great Britain and Ireland and smaller Scandinavian components reflect distinct remnants from early settlers in northern Europe, hunter-gatherers who arrived there more than 30,000 years ago. The Western and Central and Southern European percentages likely arrived later, first with the spread of agriculture from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East over the past 8,000 years, and much later by the reach of the Roman Empire. English populations today retain links to both the early Europeans and later migrants.


Bulgarian

This reference population is based on groups living in Bulgaria. The Eastern and Central European components reflect influence of early settlers from the north and east, while the southern European and Asian Minor percentages reflect influence of late-coming agriculturalists from the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions, who arrived here more than 7,000 years ago. The Central Asian and Asia Minor components likely reflect contact with the east through the ancient Silk Road and mixing with groups such as Russians.


Chinese

This reference population is based on samples from urban populations in eastern China. The large Eastern Asia percentage is representative of early migrations in East Asia, while the Central Asian component likely originates from historic influences by Mongol groups from Mongolia and eastern Siberia. The Southeast Asian component likely reflects generational mixing with groups originating farther south.


Danish

This reference population is based on people currently living in Denmark. The dominant Scandinavian component likely reflects the earliest settlers in northern Europe, hunter-gatherers who arrived there more than 30,000 years ago. The other European percentages likely reflect movement of groups north as the ice sheets retreated. As groups moved throughout Europe, they spread their genetic patterns. And today, Northern European populations retain the links to both early and later migrants from the south and east.


Eastern Indian

This reference population is based on people living in eastern India. The Southern Asia component likely reflects genetic remnants from the first settlers in the Indian subcontinent, who arrived during the earliest migration out of Africa. In contrast, the Southeast Asian component likely reflects migrations back west, perhaps with the later spread of rice agriculture or the Austroasiatic languages, such as Munda, which is found at highest frequency in eastern India. The Central and Eastern Asia components reflect more localized movement of groups from neighboring regions. While the small European percentage represents recent interactions with people of British and other European groups.


Egyptian

This reference population is based on native Egyptians. As ancient populations first migrated from Africa, they passed first through northeast Africa to southwest Asia. The Northern Africa and Arabian components in Egypt are representative of that ancient migratory route, as well as later migrations from the Fertile Crescent back into Africa with the spread of agriculture over the past 10,000 years, and migrations in the seventh century with the spread of Islam from the Arabian Peninsula. The East African component likely reflects localized movement up the navigable Nile River, while the Southern Europe and Asia Minor components reflect the geographic and historical role of Egypt as a historical player in the economic and cultural growth across the Mediterranean region.


Finnish

This reference population is based on people native to Finland. The dominant Finland and Scandinavia components likely reflect a mixture from two distinct groups of early settlers in Europe, hunter-gatherers who arrived in Europe more than 30,000 years ago from the south and east. In contrast, the Eastern European component likely arrived later through localized migrations from newer groups. The small Central Asian component reflects mixing with native Siberian populations farther east, particularly the reindeer-herding Sami people.


Georgian

This reference population is people from the Republic of Georgia in the Caucasus Mountains. The Caucasus region has long been a land bridge north of the Middle East, between the vast waters of the Black and Caspian Seas. However, the region is mountainous and was heavily settled from the south later during the Neolithic period only as agriculture spread from the Fertile Crescent in the past 10,000 years. The large Asia Minor and Caucasus components of Georgians reflect the long-standing genetic congruency of the local groups there today, who are a genetic composition of various migratory groups. The smaller Central Asian and Eastern European components likely reflect specific migrations south and west, likely of Turkic speakers moving south from Russia.


German

This reference population is based on people native to Germany. The dominant Western and Central European and Eastern European components likely reflect genetic remnants from early settlers in Europe, hunter-gatherer groups who arrived there more than 30,000 years ago. The Southern European component likely arrived later, with the spread of agriculture from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East over the past 10,000 years. Most central European populations retain links to both the earliest European settlers and the later migrants from the south and east. The Great Britain and Scandinavian components likely reflect localized genetic mixing in recent times.


Greek

This reference population is based on native populations from Greece. The large Southern European and Asia Minor components reflect the strong influence of agriculturalists from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, who arrived here more than 10,000 years ago. The smaller Eastern European component likely comes from the pre-agricultural population of Europe. Today, this component predominates in northern European populations, while the Mediterranean component is more common in southern Europe.


Highland Peruvian

This reference population is based on indigenous groups living in the Peruvian Andes. People in this region are predominantly Native American with a small amount of historic admixture with southern European populations occurring during the Spanish and Portuguese colonizations of South America. The small Siberian component reflects a distinct connection with northeast Asian groups seen in low frequency in some indigenous populations in both American continents.


Iberian (Spain & Portugal)

This reference population is based on groups native to Iberia, the peninsula of Spain and Portugal. The large Southern Europe component reflects the strong influence of agriculturalists from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East who arrived here some 10,000 years ago. While the Western European and Great Britain and Ireland components likely come from mixture with neighboring groups with genetic links to the pre-agricultural population of Europe—the earlier settlers. The North African component reflects the historic migration of populations north across the Strait of Gibraltar into Iberia in the past 2,000 years.


Iranian

This reference population is based on native Iranians. As some ancient populations migrated from Africa, they passed first through southwestern Asia en route to the rest of Eurasia. Some populations stayed in the Middle East and southwest Asia, over time developing unique genetic patterns. The large Arabian and Southern Asia components found in our reference Iranian population reflect these ancient patterns. The Asia Minor and Central Asia components likely arrived via the migrations of groups originating in those regions farther north, such as the Turks and Mongols. The Silk Road also may have served to disperse Asian genetic patterns farther south and west.


Japanese

This reference population is based on samples from Japanese populations. The large East Asian percentage is representative of recent migrations in East Asia, while the Siberian component likely represents remnants from earlier settlers from the north and west: eastern Siberia and northern China. The Southeast Asian component reflects more recent mixing with groups that originated farther south.


Khoisan (Southern Africa)

This reference population is based on the Khoi and San peoples of southern Africa. These are perhaps some of the oldest populations in Africa, and they have a unique genetic pattern that sets them apart from most other African groups. This likely arose during the long period of time that these populations were genetically isolated from other African groups, perhaps due to climatic forces. Today, the Khoi and San peoples have varying degrees of admixture with Bantu-speaking groups from farther north in Africa, and this is reflected in their percentages (predominantly Southern Africa with some Eastern Africa). Some San—the famous “Bushmen of the Kalahari— can be as much as 100% Southern Africa, however.


Kinh (Vietnam)

This reference population is based on the Kinh ethnic group living in Vietnam, the largest ethnic group in the country. The large Eastern Asia and Southeast Asia percentages are representative of two separate migrations to the region, with the Southeast Asian component likely representing a composite of some of the earliest settlers of the region.


Kuwaiti

This reference population is based on native Kuwaitis and reflects the great genetic diversity of the greater region, as it was a crossroads for several migratory groups. As some ancient populations migrated from Africa, they passed first through the Middle East en route to the rest of Eurasia. Some populations stayed in the Middle East and over time developed unique genetic patterns. The large Arabian component found in our Kuwaiti population reflects the genetic remnants of these ancient migrants. The Asia Minor and European percentages represent interaction with other populations, either via populations to the northwest or from migrations through the steppe zone to the northeast. Finally, the small NorthernAfrica component reflects the relative proximity of Kuwait to Africa, and may have been increased by the Arab slave trade from the 8th to 19th century.


Lebanese

This reference population is based on the native population of Lebanon. As some ancient populations migrated from Africa, they passed first through the Middle East en route to Eurasia. Some populations stayed in the Middle East and over time developed unique genetic patterns. The mixture of Arabian, Northern Africa, and Asia Minor is unique to this part of the world. The Arabian and Northern Africa components reflect ancient patterns of settlement and interaction in the region, while the Silk Road may have served to add genetic patterns from farther north and east.


Luhya (Kenya)

This reference population is based on the Luhya people of Kenya and primarily reflects influences from various African regions (East Africa, West and Central Africa, and Southern Africa), with a small amount of possible mixing with North African groups. The large East African component is typical for the region, while the West and Central African component is due in part to the massive migrations of the Bantu-speaking peoples (the Luhya speak a Bantu language) from their homeland in west-central Africa—near present-day Cameroon—throughout Africa over the past 3,500 years.


Malagasy (Madagascar)

This reference population is based on the native population of Madagascar and reflects the broad regional diversity found there. Madagascar was populated by a combination of migratory groups crossing the Mozambique Channel from the African continent, as well as by migrants arriving by boat from Southeast Asia. This mixed genetic background is reflected on the distinct regional percentages seen in the people of Madagascar.


Mexican-American (Western US)

This population is based on Mexican Americans living in Los Angeles, California, and is reflective of the broad range of genetic diversity that many ethnic populations in present-day North America carry. The mixture of regions reflected here is due to the mixture of the original groups that populated the Americas (Native American) with more recent influence from integration with Europe and Africa. The Southern European, Western and Central European, and Great Britain components are reflective of the ancient genetic patterns in Europe, while the African components are reflective of recent historical admixture with African Americans.


Mongolian

This reference population is based on native populations of Mongolia. In addition to the predominant Central and Siberian Asian components typical of Mongolian populations, there is also an East Asian component reflective of the growth and spread of populations from the east, and an Asia Minor contribution that reflects the connection to steppe nomads of western Eurasian origin. There are also possible migrations from the Middle East with the spread of agriculture over the past 10,000 years.


Ni-Vanuatu (Vanuatu)

This reference population is based on samples from people native to the island of Vanuatu, formerly known as the New Hebrides, in the South Pacific. In addition to the Oceania/Southeast Asia components that define this Melanesian population, the smaller East Asian components were introduced over the past several thousand years by the seafaring Austronesians, who hailed from mainland Asia. These were the ancestors of the Polynesians, who settled in Vanuatu before heading out into the open waters of the Pacific.


Northern Caucasian

This reference population is based on populations native to the North Caucasus, including Dagestanis and Abkhazians. The North Caucasus appears to have been settled from the Middle East, largely during the Neolithic period as agriculture spread from its homeland in the Fertile Crescent into surrounding regions over the past 10,000 years. The Asia Minor and Arabian components reflect this close connection to the Middle East, whereas the Eastern European and Central Asian components reflect connections to ancient populations living north of the Caucasus, including Ukraine and Russia. Lastly, the East Asian component reflects some mixing with groups from that region, perhaps via the Tatars and other steppe nomads.


Northern Indian

This reference is based on populations living in northern India, near the Pakistani, Chinese, and Nepalese borders. The South Asia component represents the first migration from Africa through the Indian subcontinent—this is likely the oldest component among Indian populations today. The Southeast Asian component reflects possible back migration west from groups in Southeast Asia, perhaps with the spread of rice agriculture or the Austroasiatic languages such as Munda, and is found at highest frequency in eastern India. The Arabian and Asia Minor components probably arrived with the spread of agriculture into India from the Fertile Crescent within the past 10,000 years. The European and Central Asin percentages likely represent recent interaction with people of ultimately European origin, and perhaps via the ancient Indo-Iranian-speaking steppe nomads of Central Asia, who are thought to have migrated into India around 3,500 years ago.


Pamiri (Tajikistan)

This reference population is based on people native to the Pamir mountains of Tajikistan in southern Central Asia. As ancient populations migrated from Africa, they passed through the Middle East en route to India and Central Asia. This is the likely source of the Arabian and Central Asian components in the Pamiri population, and links this group to populations farther south on the Indian subcontinent. The European component probably arrived with the spread of agriculture in the past 10,000 years while the East Asian component was likely brought by the Turkic and Mongolian-speaking nomads from farther east, who conquered this region in the past 2,000 years.


Papuan (Papua New Guinea)

This reference population is based on people native to the highlands and lowlands of Papua New Guinea. In addition to the Oceania/Southeast Asia component that defines this population and others in the Melanesian region, the small East Asian component was likely introduced over the past several thousand years by the seafaring Austronesians, who hailed from Southeast Asia. These were the ancestors of the Polynesians, who settled on the northern coast of New Guinea before heading out into the open waters of the Pacific.


Peruvians from Lima

This reference population is based on Peruvian people living in the capital, Lima. People in this region are predominantly Native American but also carry a significant amount of recent admixture with European populations in the past 500 years. This time period was the Spanish colonial era comprising the old-world components, which themselves reflect ancient migrations in Europe over the past 40,000 years. There is also a small amount of West African due to the significant African slave trade in the 16th through 19th centuries.


Puerto Rican

This reference population is based on people living in Puerto Rico and reflects the wide ethnic diversity found there, both recent and ancient. Puerto Rico was originally populated by the Taino peoples (with ties to South America), accounting for the small Native American component. Columbus claimed the island for Spain, and the Spanish influence accounts for the heavy European components there (these regions in Europe reflect ancient migrations in Europe over the past 40,000 years). The African components are due to the slave trade of the 16th through the 19th centuries, which had a significant influence on the local genetic patterns on the island.


Romanian

This reference population is based on people native to Romania. The Southern Europe percentages reflect the strong influence of agriculturalists from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, who arrived here more than 8,000 years ago, while the Eastern European component comes partially from the preagricultural population of Europe—the earliest settlers, who arrived more than 30,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic period. The East Asian and Central Asian components show that there has been some mixing with groups to the east, and is typical of eastern European populations such as Romanians, Russians, and North Caucasians.


Russians

This reference population is based on Russians living in Eastern Russia. The dominant Eastern Europe component likely reflects the earliest settlers in Europe, hunter-gatherers who arrived there more than 35,000 years ago. The Southern European and Asia Minor percentages arrived later, with the spread of agriculture from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East over the past 10,000 years. As these early farmers moved into Europe, they spread their genetic patterns as well. Today, Eastern European populations retain the links to both the earliest Europeans and these later migrants from the Middle East. The Asian components reflect mixing with native Siberian populations, including the reindeer-herding Sami people of far northern Russia and Scandinavia.


Sardinian

This reference population is based on people native to the Mediterranean island of Sardinia. The large Southern European percentage reflects the strong influence of agriculturalists from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, who arrived in Italy and Sardinia some 8,000 years ago. The other European component likely comes from the pre-agricultural population of Europe—the earliest settlers, who arrived in Europe more than 30,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic period—and was carried along with the other components by the first agricultural settlers of Sardinia. The North African component likely reflects more recent migration to the island across the Mediterranean.


Southern Indian

This reference population is based on groups that live in southern India. The South Asian component represents the first migration from Africa through the Middle East to the Indian subcontinent. This is likely the oldest component in Indian populations today. The Southeast Asian component reflects migrations from this region and mixing with those living in India, perhaps with the spread of rice agriculture or the Austroasiatic languages. The Arabian component probably arrived with the spread of agriculture into India from the Fertile Crescent within the past 10,000 years. Southern Indian populations have a very small European component, while northern Indian populations have slightly higher Middle Eastern and European components.


Tatar (Russia)

This reference population is based on the Tatar people of central Russia, a Turkic-speaking group that originated in the region of present-day Mongolia and settled on the Volga River in the seventh century. Their genetic results reflect their origin, with strong Siberian and Central Asian components. However, there has been substantial mixing with western Eurasian populations (including Russians) over the years, resulting in the European and Asia Minor components more typical in Europe.


Tunisian

This reference population is based on people native to Tunisia, in North Africa. Tunisia’s location on the Mediterranean Sea in North Africa contributes to its broad genetic diversity. Predominantly North African, there are also clearly European and Arabian components. The Arabian component likely arrived in two waves, one with the arrival of agriculture from the Middle East beginning around 8,000 years ago, and one with the Islamic conquest of the seventh century. Tunisians also carry components from other regions of Africa, such as Western/Central Africa.


Tuscan (Italy)

This reference population is based on Italians native to Tuscany, in north central Italy. The Southern and Central European percentages reflect the strong influence of agriculturalists from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, who arrived in Italy more than 7,000 years ago. The Eastern European component likely comes from the pre-agricultural population of Europe—the earliest settlers, who arrived in Europe more than 30,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic period—and was perhaps increased during the conquest of northern Italy by the Germanic Lombards in the sixth through eighth centuries. Today, the northern European component predominates in northern European populations, while the Mediterranean component is more common in southern Europe.


Western Indian

This reference population is based on populations native to western India. The large Southern Asia component represents the first migration from Africa through the Middle East to the Indian subcontinent. It is likely the oldest component in Indian populations today. The Southeast Asian component reflects migration back west from Southeast Asia, followed by mixing between populations from this region and those living in India, perhaps with the spread of rice agriculture or the Austroasiatic languages, such as Munda, and is found at highest frequency in eastern India. The Arabian and European components probably arrived with the spread of agriculture into India from the Fertile Crescent within the past 10,000 years.


Yoruban (West African)

This reference population is based on the Yoruba population of Nigeria, and primarily reflects influences from a few different African regions (predominantly Western Africa and Southern Africa. The large West African component is due at least in part to the massive and successful spread of the Bantu-speaking peoples (the Yoruba speak a Bantu language) from their homeland in west-central Africa—near present-day Cameroon—throughout Africa over the past 3,500 years, carrying their genetic patterns along with them.


Senegalese

This reference population is based on populations from Senegal in West Africa. The large Western Africa component reflects the influences from the spread of Bantu-speaking peoples across much of the continent. The significant North African component reflects mixing with populations to the north and east of Senegal, whereas the European components reflect the influence of the European superpowers on West Africa and the long history of colonization of the region by France.


Irish

This reference population is based on people native to Ireland. The large Great Britain and Ireland component reflects the genetic and cultural isolation of groups on the island for millennia after the early Holocene retreat of the glaciers that covered Northern Europe. The large Scandinavia component reflects the historical influence of the Nordic groups on Ireland, whereas the Western and Southern Europe components reflect genetic links to neighboring regions, which remain even after migrants reached Ireland after the retreat of the glaciers, as well as recent historical influences from Spain, France, and Italy.


Korean

This reference population is based on populations native to the Korean Peninsula. The large East Asian component is associated with some of the earliest populations to reach the region, while the smaller Central Asian and Southeast Asian components are a product of more recent mixing from groups in the greater region in the past several millennia.


Argentinian

This reference population is based on people living in an urban setting in Argentina. The bio-geographic components are very diverse but include predominantly a mixture of groups from Central and Southern Europe, as well as Native American. Most groups in Central and South America, as well as the Caribbean, are a mixture of European, African, and Native American components.


Dutch

This reference group is based on a Dutch population. This population is similar in composition to that from Germany but differs in the percentage mixture (or gene flow) from British and Scandinavian regions to the north and west of the region. The large western/central European component is itself a genetic mixture of populations that first reached Europe as hunter-gatherers some 40,000 years ago but later intermixing with agriculturalists arriving in the past 10,000 years from the Middle East.


Czech

The reference group is based on a Czech population, typical of central Europe, a region that saw thousands of years of constant migration and population movement. The large Eastern European and Central European components are themselves a genetic mixture of both hunter-gatherers and agricultural groups moving through the area. The Southern European component is associated with groups entering from the Middle East and Southeastern Europe in the past 8,000 years.


Bengali

The reference group is based on a Bengali population from Southeastern Asia. The large Southern Asia component is associated with some of the first populations to reach that region of the world, soon after humans migrated out of Africa some 60,000 years ago. The next largest component from Southeast Asia is associated with a movement west from Southeast Asia in the past several millennia. Modern Bengali populations are predominantly a mixture of these two components, as well as smaller components from Central and East Asia, associated with more recent regional mixing.


Indonesian

The reference group is based on populations from the larger islands of western Indonesia. The large Southeast Asian component is associated with the early people to reach Indonesia some 40,000 to 50,000 years ago when Sumatra, Java, and Borneo were all still connected to mainland Asia in a supercontinent known as Sundaland. Small groups of migrants reached Australia from Indonesia around that same time, likely marking the first time placental mammals had ever reached down under. Modern-day Indonesians also show more recent mixture from groups in South and East Asia.


Scottish

This reference group is based on populations from Scotland, in the northern part of the island of Great Britain. This population is similar in genetic composition to our reference British population (England), yet the Scottish group shows greater influence from populations to the north, like Scandinavia and Arctic groups. The large Great Britain and Ireland component as well as the Scandinavian component are remnants from some of the first settlers of northern Europe, whereas the smaller components from mainland Europe show influence from migrations to the island after the arrival of agriculture to Europe some 8,000 years ago.


French

This reference population is based on groups living in modern-day France. The two largest components are Western/Central and Southern European. The former is a composite of early continental hunter-gatherers, some of which may have interacted and mixed with Neanderthals, and more recent migrations from the Middle East. The Southern European component is associated with agriculturalists arriving from the Fertile Crescent to Europe in the past 8,000 years, introducing crops such as wheat and barley.


Ethiopian

This reference population is based on populations from Ethiopia. The Eastern African component is highest and is typical for a group from that region. The Eastern African component likely represents some of the oldest branches of the human family tree, as some researchers consider East Africa to be the birthplace of humanity. Ethiopia itself is home to several prehistoric hominin species that coexisted there some three to five million years ago. The Arabian and South Asian components, in contrast, reflect historical migration and mixing with groups north and east of the Horn of Africa.


Polish

This reference population is associated with groups living in Poland, in Eastern Europe. The large Eastern European component is typical for the region, and is itself a genetic composite of years of migration through the region. The Central/Western European component suggests mixing with German groups to the west, while the southern European and Asia Minor components are likely associated with the spread of agriculture into Europe from the Middle East. The smaller Scandinavian and Finland/Siberia components also indicate recent mixing with neighboring regions.


Norwegian

This reference population is associated with a modern-day Norwegian population. The large Scandinavian component is typical for the region and is likely associated with some of the earliest settlers to Europe some 40,000 years ago. The western/central and eastern European components indicate recent mixing with neighboring groups to the south of Norway, while the Finland/Siberia components suggest influence from indigenous groups to the north and east, such as the Sami from Sweden and Finland.


Greenland Inuit

This reference population is based on groups living in Greenland. The large Finland/eastern Siberia and Native American components are typical of Inuit, or Eskimo, populations from the Arctic regions of North America. The two distinct lineages may be indicative of two distinct waves of migration across the Bering Strait. The Scandinavian component suggests historical mixing with populations from Norway and Iceland that reached and colonized Greenland for several centuries.


Filipino

The reference population is based on people living in the Philippine archipelago. The large Southeast Asia/Oceania component is indicative of some of the earliest settlers of the islands of Southeast Asia some 40,000 years ago, when much of the Philippine and Indonesian archipelagoes were connected to mainland Asia. The East Asia component, in contrast, is associated with the migrants from China and Taiwan who expanded south, spreading Austronesian languages and rice cultivation some 3,000 to 4,000 years ago.


Haitian

The reference population is associated with groups living in Haiti, the western half of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. The large Western and Central African component is indicative of the influence of the forced migration of African groups to the Americas during the transatlantic slave trade, which is most evident in former French and English Caribbean colonies. The Native American component is a genetic remnant of some of the earliest settlers of Hispaniola, the Tainos, while the European components are remnants from the centuries-long European control of the region.


Colombian

This reference population is associated with groups living in Colombia, in northern South America. This population is a mixture of several components, the largest of which are the Native American, associated with the indigenous groups that first settled in the region some 12,000 years ago; and the Southern Europe one associated with the centuries-long Spanish colonization of much of South America. The sub-Saharan African component suggests that Colombia holds a strong connection with groups introduced from Africa during the slave trade.


Ashkenazi Jewish

This reference population is based on groups with cultural and religious affinities with Judaism in Eastern and Central Europe, as well as in the Americas. These groups trace their deep ancestry to Israel and the region of the Middle East. However, most of these groups have been living in diaspora for centuries, and in some cases millennia.